ENGLISH GRAMMAR / MORE ABOUT ADJECTIVE

ADJECTIVE
 
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Adjective: প্রকৃতপক্ষে যে word এর দ্বারা noun বা pronoun এর দোষ , গুণ,অবস্থা,সংখ্যাবাপরিমাণবোঝায়তাকেadjective বলে,

However, there are 8 kinds of adjectives in terms of nature. (প্রকৃতিগত বিচারে adjective আট প্রকার।)

Kinds of adjectives

How to recognize themEXAMPLE

Proper adjectives (Indian team is better than Chinese tea)

Proper noun থেকে proper adjective হয়

Asian, Chinese, French

,English African ,

Punjabi etc

Adjective of quality            (He is an honest man)

(noun বাpronoun এর দোষ গুণ বা অবস্থা প্রকাশ করে)

good ,bad, wise ,noble,

rich, Poor, great, cold, warm etc

Adjective of quantity             (I want some salt)

(noun বাpronoun এর quantity বা পরিমাণ বোঝায় )

much , huge,some,a little,all,any,

half,full,whole, enough etc

Numeral adjective       (some boys were there in the competition but only three got the prizes.)

noun বাpronoun এর সংখ্যা বোঝাই

one,two,three,first,second,

third,all,many,any,some,

several,each,every,a few,etc

Demonstrative adjective            (I had such things)

(কোন ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুকে বিশেষভাবে

this,,thesethose,such etc

Distributive adjective     (each boy will get a prize)

 

 

(একাধিক ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুর মধ্যে প্রত্যেকটি পৃথকভাবে নির্দেশ করে)

each, every, either, neither.

Interrogative adjective

(what manner of man is he?)

 

(প্রশ্নসূচক শব্দ (wh-words)nounএর পূর্বে adjectiveএর মত ব্যবহৃত হয়)

whose, which, what, whose book is this?

Possessive adjective (this is his book)

 

 

(অধিকার বা সম্বন্ধসূচক adjective)

my,our,your,his,her,

their

 
 

FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES

Some adjectives are formed from nouns
NOUN
ADJECTIVE
NOUN
ADJECTIVE
Boy
Boyish
Fool
Foolish
Child
Childish
Beauty
Beautiful
Care
Careful
Hope
Hopeful
Need
Needful
Peace
Peaceful
Play
Playful
Success
Successful
Use
Useful
Wonder
Wonderful
Shame
Shameless
Sense
Senseless
Cease
Ceaseless
Gold
Golden
Silk
Silken
Cost
Costly
King
Kingly
Life
Lively
Man
Manly
Miser
Miserly
Benefit
Beneficial
Education
Educational
Devotion
Devotional
Health
Healthy
Dirt
Dirty
Ease
Easy
Storm
Stormy
Sun
Sunny
Leaf
Leafy
Anger
Angry
Glory
Glorious
Envy
Envious
Ambition
Ambitious
Courage
Courageous
Danger
Dangerous
Nerve
Nervous
Telegraph
Telegraphic
Laugh
Laughable
Belief
Believable
Desire
Desirable
Pardon
Pardonable
Music
Musical
Crime
Criminal
Attraction
Attractive
Destruction
Destructive
Distribution
Distributive
Production
Productive
Office
Official
Voice
Vocal
people
Popular
Hand
Handsome
Trouble
Troublesome
Quarrel
Quarrelsome
 
 
 
Some adjectives are formed from verbs
VERB
ADJECTIVE
VERB
ADJECTIVE
Act
Active
Rely
Reliable
Move
Movable
Detect
Detective
Attract
Attractive
Add
Additional
Deceive
Deceptive
Edit
Editorial
Include
Inclusive
Instruct
Instructive
Forget
Forget full
Trust
Trustful
Talk
Talkative
Invent
Inventive
Agree
Agreeable
Prevent
Preventive
Desire
Desirable
Advise
Advisory
Enjoy
Enjoyable
Love
Lovely
 
Some adjectives formed from other adjectives
ADJECTIVE
ADJECTIVE
ADJECTIVE
ADJECTIVE
Economic
Economical
Black
Blackish
Tragic
Tragical
White
Whitish
Three
Threefold
Large
Largely
Whole
Wholesome
Sick
Sickly
 
Note: কিছুword আছেযাদেরশেষে‘ly’যুক্তআছেদেখে  মনে হয়adverb কিন্তু সেগুলি adjective.
যেমন-lovely, Sickly, Manly, miserly.
He is a miserly man.
 

Comparison of adjective

সাধারণত  adjective থেকেদুইবাদুইয়েরবেশিমধ্যেতুলনাবোঝাতেadjective এর যে রুপ হয়তাকেComparison of adjective বলে
 
There are 3 degrees of comparison
1. Positive degree
2. Comparative degree
3. Superlative degree
 

1. Positive degree:   The positive degree is the simplest form of the adjective (adjective সাধারণভাবে বসে)

যেমন-tall ,beautiful
He is a tall boy.
 

2. Comparative degree:    The comparative degree is the form used when a comparison is made between two persons or things. (যখনদুটিব্যক্তিবাবস্তুরমধ্যেতুলনাকরাহয়)

যেমন-He is taller than you.
 

3. Superlative degree:   The superlative degree is the form used when more than two things, or sets of things ,are compared. (যখনদুইয়েরঅধিকব্যক্তিবাবস্তুরমধ্যেতুলনাকরাাহয়)

যেমন-He is the tallest boy in the class.
 

RULES OF COMPARISON

1.       1. MOST ADJECTIVES OF ONE SYLLABLE BY ADDING er AND est.(এক syllable বিশিষ্টadjective থেকে comparative -er এবংsuperlative-est যোগ হয়)
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
High
Higher
Highest
Black
Blacker
Blackest
Cold
Colder
Coldest
Great
Greater
Greatest
Small
Smaller
Smallest
Long
Longer
Longest
Bold
Bolder
Boldest
Hard
Harder
Hardest
Poor
Poorer
Poorest
Rich
Richer
Richest
Kind
Kinder
Kindest
Young
Younger
Youngest
Short
Shorter
Shortest
Soft
Softer
Softest
Weak
Weaker
weakest
 
2.       2. When the positive and in e, only e ,r and st  are added (positive এরশেষেe থাকলেেশুধুু-r এবং-st যোগহয়)
 
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
Wise
Wiser
Wisest
Large
Larger
Largest
Pale
Paler
Palest
Able
Abler
Ablest
Brave
Braver
Bravest
Fine
Finar
Finest
Late
Letter
Latest
Simple
Simpler
Simplest
Wide
Wider
Widest
Noble
Nobler
Noblest
Close
Closer
Closest
Pure
Purer
purest
 
3 . When the positive ends in in a a consonant preceded by a vowel, the consonant is doubled before adding -er and -est:(positive এর শেষে consonant এবংতারঠিকপূর্বেvowel থাকলেconsonant টিdouble করে. -er. এবং যোগহয়
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
Fat
Fater
Fattest
Mad
Madder
Maddest
Thin
Thinner
Thinnest
Hot
Hotter
Hottest
Sad
Shadder
Saddest
Wet
Wetter
wettest
 
3.    4.   When the positive ends in y, preceded by a consonant, the y is changed into i before adding -er and -est:(যখন positive এরশেষেy থাকেএবংতারপূর্বেconsonant থাকে তখন y কে i করে-er এবং-est যোগহয়)
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
Dry
Dryer
Driest
Lazy
Lezire
Laziest
Ugly
Uglier
Ugliest
Busy
Busier
Busiest
Easy
Easier
Easiest
Heavy
Heavier
Haviest
Pretty
Prettier
Prettiest
Happy
Happier
Happiest
Merry
Merrier
Merriest
Holy
Holier
Holiest
 
Note: যখনadjective এরশেষেy থাকলেওতারপূর্বেvowel থাকে, তখনy এরকোনপরিবর্তননাকরে-er এবং-est যোগহয়
যেমন
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
Gay
Gayer
Gayest
Grey
Greyer
Greyest
 
5. Some comparatives and superlatives are different from the positive: (কতগুলিিcomparativeএবং superlative  তাদের positiveথেকেআলাদাহয়)
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
Bad/ Evil /ill
Worse
worst
Far
Farther
Farthest
Fore
Former
Foremost
Good
Better
Best
Hind
Hinder
Hindmost
Late
Later/latter
latest/last
Little
Less/Lesser
Least
Much/many
More
Most
Near
Nearer
Nearest
Old
Older/Elder
Oldest/Eldest
 
6. Adjectives of two syllable or more than two syllables form the comparative and the superlative by adding more and most before them.(দুই বা ততোধিক. syllable বিশিষ্ট adjectiveএরcomparativeএবং superlativeকরতে হলেmore এবং  most যোগকরতেহয়)
POSITIVE
COMPARATIVE
SUPERLATIVE
Anxious
MoreAanxious
Most Anxious
Careful
More Careful
Most Careful
Brilliant
More Brilliant
Most Brilliant
Beautiful
More Beautiful
Most Beautiful
Dutiful
More Dutiful
Most Dutiful
Courageous
Mor Courageous
Most Courageous
Diligent
More Diligent
Most Diligent
Important
More Important
Most Important
Interesting
More Interesting
Most Interesting
Industrious
More Industrious
Most Industrious
 
7. There are some Latin comparatives এদের পজিটিভ এবংসুপারলেটিভএরকোনform নেইএদেরপরেto বসে
যেমন-junior senior inferior superior minor major,prior, anterior posterior etc.
Example in sentence: I am junior to him. He is senior to me.
 
 
CHANGE OF DEGREE
Positive degree-Benu  is as tall as Raghu.
Comparative degree-Paltu  is taller then Pintu.
Superlative degree-Bheem is the the tallest boy in the class.
Remember: positive degree এর তুলনা হলে আগেas এবংপরেas হয়কখনোকখনোআগেরas থাকেনাযেমন– He is is ferocious as a tiger.
 
Comparative degree এর  পরেthan বসে
Superlative degree আগেthe এবংপরেof বাin বসে
 
Example: 
He is ferocious as a tiger (positive)
A tiger is not more ferocious than he (comparative)
 
Rahul stronger than sourav(positive)
Rahul is less strong than Saurav (comparative)
 
Saurabh is the laziest boy in the class (superlative)
Saurav is lazier than any other boy in the class (comparative)
No other boy in the class is as lazy as Sourav (positive)
Gold is one of the most precious metals (superlative)
Gold is more precious than many others metals (comparative)
Very few metals are as precious as dimond (positive)

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