NOUN & THE NUMBER

NOUN & THE NUMBER
 
WRITING SKILL //  PARAGRAPH WRITING  //    PROCESSING  //  PRECIS WRIING

 

 

NUMBER//SINGULAR//PLURAL

 

NUMBER(বচন):   If a noun tells about one or more than one is called Number.(যদি একটি Noun(বিশেষ্য) এক বা একাধিক এর কথা বলে তখন তাকে Number(বচন)বলে।

যেমন –(i) Boy (only one)   (ii) boys (more than one)   
আমরা আগে পড়েছি Noun  কে পাঁচ ভাগে ভাগ করা যায় ।আবার সেই পাঁচ প্রকার noun  কে দুই ভাগে ভাগ করে দেখানো হয়েছে।
            1. Countable
            2. Uncountable
Counatable noun have two forms-Singular & Plural (Counatable noun এর দুটি রুপ আছে একবচন এবং বহুবচন )
Uncountable Noun are always Singular.( Uncountable Noun সর্বদাই একবচন হয়।)
 

Singular Number: when one thing or person  is spoken of, the noun is singular.( যখন এক বস্তু বা বাক্তি কে বোঝায় তখন  Noun টি হয় একবচন )

Pluran number : when more than one thing or person  is spoken of, the noun is plural.(যখন একএর বেশি বস্তু বা বাক্তি কে বোঝায় তখন Noun টি হয় বহুবচন )

 

Rules for changing singular into Plural.(একবচন থেকে বহুবচন এ পরিবর্তন করার নিয়ম )

Rule(1)Most nouns form their plural by adding ‘s’ to the Singular.(বেশির ভাগ singular   noun এর সঙ্গে ‘S’ যোগ করে Plural করা হয়।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Boy
Boys
Table
Tables
Friend
Friends
Chair
Chairs
Cow
cows
Dog
Dogs
Computer
computers
Fan
Fans
Book
Books
River
Rivers
Pen
Pens
House
Houses
Bird
Birds
Eye
Eyes
 
Rule(2)If the noun end with S,Sh,or Ch(soft),SS,or Z, the plural is formed by adding ‘es’ to the singular.( যদি কোন noun এর শেষে S,Sh,or Ch(soft),SS,or Z, থাকে তাহলে ‘es’ যোগ করে Plural করতে হয়।)
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Box
Boxes
Class
Classes
Ass
Asses
Match
Matches
Glass
Glasses
Church
Churches
Bush
Bushes
Tax
Taxes
Watch
Watches
Topaz
Topazes
 
Note: If ‘ch’ sounds as ‘K’ plural is formed by adding ‘S’(যদি ‘ch’ উচ্চারণ ‘ক’ এর মত হয় ,তবে শুধু ‘S’ যোগে plural হয়।)
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Monarch
monarchs
Stomach
Stomachs
 
 
Rule(3)Nouns ending in ‘Y’ having a vowel before it form their plural by adding ‘S’.( Noun এর শেষে ‘Y’ এবং তার পূর্বে vowel থাকলে ‘S’ যোগে plural হয়।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Play
Plays
Ray
Rays
Toy
Toys
Vally
Vallys
Pay
Pays
Monkey
Monkeys
Journey
Journeys
Day
Days
Key
Keys
Donkey
Donkeys
 
Note:Nouns ending in ‘Y’ having a Consonant  before it form their plural by adding ‘ies’.( Noun এর শেষে ‘Y’ এবং তার পূর্বে Consonant থাকলে ‘ies’ যোগে plural হয়।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
City
Cities
Army
Armies
Lady
Ladies
Fly
Flies
Navy
Navies
Story
Stories
Duty
Duties
Baby
Babies
 
 
Rules(4)Nouns ending in ‘O’ having a vowel before it form their plural by adding ‘S’.( Noun এর শেষে ‘O’ এবং তার পূর্বে vowel থাকলে ‘S’ যোগে plural হয়।
 
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Bamboo
Bamboos
Cuckoo
Cuckoos
Ratio
Ratios
Radio
Radios
Studio
Studios
video
videos
Stereo
Stereos
Portfolio
Portfolios
Curio
Curios
Folio
Folios
 
Note: Nouns ending in ‘O’ having a Consonant  before it form their plural by adding ‘es’.( Noun এর শেষে ‘O’ এবং তার পূর্বে Consonant থাকলে ‘es’ যোগে plural হয়।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Mango
Mangoes
Zero
Zeros
Potato
Potatoes
Buffalo
Buffaloes
Hero
Heroes
Volcano
Volcanoes
Echo
Echoes
Mosquito
Mosquitoes
 
Some Exception :
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Dynamo
Dynamos
Piano
Pianos
 
Rule(5) nouns ending in ‘f’ or ‘fe’ form their plural by changing f or fe into v adding es.( Noun এর শেষে f বা fe থাকলে f বা fe স্থানে -ves যোগ করে plural হয়।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Life
Lives
Loaf
Loaves
Wolf
Wolves
Thief
Thieves
Knife
Knives
Half
Halves
Calf
Calves
Leaf
Leaves
 
 
Note:But Generally nouns ending in ‘f’ take only ‘s’
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Chief
Chiefs
Proof
Proofs
Brief
Briefs
Hoof
Hoofs
Roof
roofs
Proof
Proofs
Reef
Reefs
Handkerchief
Handkerchiefs
 
Rule(6)By changing inside vowel (কিছু noun কে plural করার সময় ভিতরের vowel পরিবর্তন করতে হয়।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Man
Men
Woman
Women
Foot
feet
Tooth
Teeth
Louse
Lice
Mouse
Mice
Goose
Geese
Person
People
 
Rule(7) Some Noun add ‘en’
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Ox
Oxen
Child
Children
Brother
Brotheren
 
 
 
Rule(8) By adding ‘s’ to the main word of compound nouns.( Compound Noun এর মুল শব্দটির সঙ্গে ‘S’ যোগে।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Father-in-law
Fathers-in-law
Son-in-law
Sons-in-law
Mother-in-law
Mothers-in-law
Daughter-in-law
Daughters-in-law
Step-son
step-sons
step-daughter
Step-Daughters
Maid-Servant
Maid-Servants
milk-man
Milk-Men
Finger-print
Finger-prints
Governor- general
Governors – general
Passer-by
Passers-by
 
 
 
Note :Compound noun written without hyphen take ‘s’ to form the plural.( Compound noun hyphen দ্বারা যুক্ত না হলে ‘S’ যোগ করে plural করতে হয়।
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Bookcase
Bookcases
Handful
Handfuls
Bagful
Bagfuls
Spoonful
Spoonfuls
Armchair
Armchairs
Pickpocket
Pickpockets
 
Rule(9) There are some compound Nouns which take a double plural.(কয়েকটি compound Nounএর Double Plural হয়।)
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Man-servant
men-servants
Lord-justice
Lord-Justices
Lord-Justice
Lords-Justices
woman-servant
women-servants
 
Rule(10) Some nouns have the singular and the plural alike.No change in numbers.(কিছু noun Singular এবং plural-এ একই রকম থাকে)
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Deer
deer
sheep
sheep
pice
pice
public
public
Dozen
Dozen
Score
score
Hundred
Hundred
Thousand
Thousand
 
 
Note : যদিও Hundreds of students , Thousands of People এরুপ প্রয়োগ হয়। আরও আছে  যেমন : cod    trout salmo  bison  media  aircraft  hovercraft spacecraft Chinese dozen score million ton data gross dice Japanese swine .
 
Some ‘-s’ Ending  Nouns
Barracks   Crossroads     headquarters      means    Species   swiss  works   series
 
Rule (11)Some Nouns always Plural
 Aristocracy, trousers, cattle ,spectacles, clergy, crew, scissors, gentry, jeans, nobility, staff, The French, The British,The English, The Spanish, The Irish, The Dutch, The Welsh, Police Poultry, vermin, folk.
Note: Singular – a clergyman   a gentleman   a policeman   an Englishman
 
 
Rule(12) Some Nouns Plural in form but Singular in use (কিছু Noun দেখতে Plural কিন্তু ব্যবহারে Singular)
 
News   gallows  billards    cards   piles  means  tennis  measles   diabetes small pox
 
Note : Generally Singular  – Mthematics, Physics, Athletics, Economics, Politics, Innings, Electronics,
 
Rule(13)Some Typical examples of plurals.(বিশেষ ধরনের plural এর উদাহারন )
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Agendum
Agenda
Bacterium
Bacteria
Addendum
Addenda
Formula
Formulae(Formulas)
Alumnus
Alumni
Forum
Fora(Forums)
Appendix
Appendices
Axis
Axes
Bacillus
Bacilli
bureau
Bureau
Basic
bases
Corpus
corpora/ corpuses
Crisis
crises
criterion
criteria
Curriculumn
Curricula
Datum
Data
Dictum
Dicta
Erratum
Errata
Focus
Foci/Focuses
Genus
Genera
Hypothesis
Hypotheses
Medium
Media
Memorandum
Memoranda
Oasis
Oases
Ovum
Ova
Phenomenon
Phenomena
Radious
Radii
Serum
Sera
Syllabus
Syllabi
Symposium
Symposia
Terminus
termini/ terminuses
Vertex
Vertices
 
 
Rule(14) Nouns having different meaning in different numbers.(কিছু nounএর number ভিন্ন হলে অর্থ আলাদা হয়।)
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Advice-counsel(উপদেশ)
Advices-information(সংবাদ)
Good-benefit(উপকার)
Goods-things(মালপত্র)
 
Air-wind(বায়ু)
Airs manners(চালচলন)
Iron-a kind of metal
Irons-chains made of iron
 
Force-wind(শক্তি)
Forces(সেনা)
Physic-medicine
Physics-Physical science
Return-coming back
Returns-accounts
Sand-a kind of matter
sands-desert
 
 
 
Rule(15) Nouns with two plural forms of different meaning.(দু রকম Plural form এ দুরকম অর্থ।)
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Brother(ভাই)
Brothers-sons of same parents
Brotheren- member of same society
Cloth(কাপড়)
Clothes-Piece of cloth
Clothes-Garments
Fish(মাছ)
Fish Collectively fish
Fishes-fishes of different type
 
 
 
 
 
Rule(16)  Noun with one meaning in the singular but two in the plural:(Singular এ একরকম অর্থ plural এ দুরকম অর্থ।)
SINGULAR
PLURAL
MEANING
Arm (part of body)
Arms
I) a parts of bod   ii) Weapons
Colour(hue-রঙ)
Colours
i)  hue  ii) flag
Manner (method-পদ্ধতি)
Manners
i) methods ii) behaviour
Custom (habit-অভ্যাস)
Customs
i) habit  ii) revenue duties
Parts  (portion-অংশ)
Parts
i) portions ii)  skill
Premise (Proposition-বক্তব্য)
Premises
i) Propositions ii) buildings
Spectacle(a sight-দৃশ্য)
Spectacles
i) sights  ii) eye-glasses
 
        
Plural forms of Pronoun
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
I
We
Its
Their
You
You
He
They
Me
Us
She
They
This
These
Her
Them
That
Those
His
Their/Theirs
Either
Both
Yourself
Yourselves
Her
Their
Hers
Thiers
Each
Both
Him
Them
Myself
Ourselves
My
Our
Mine
Ours
Itself
Themselves
Your
your
Herself
Themselves
Himself
Themselves
Yours
Yours
 
Plural forms of Auxiliary vervs& Mains verbs.
SINGULAR
PLURAL
SINGULAR
PLURAL
Am
Are
Is
Are
Reads
Read
Was
Were
Has
Have
Cooks
Cook
Does
Do
Writes
Write
 

 

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