VOICE CHANGE / বাচ্য পরিবর্তন

Active voice  Passive voice

 

 
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VOICE// ACTIVE//PASSIVE // PRACTICE SET

 

VOICE (বাচ্য)

 
Definition- Voice is the form of the verb which shows Whether  the subject does the work or something has been done to it.  (Subject নিজে ক্রিয়াসম্পন্ন করে অথবা করেনা বোঝাতে verb-এর যে form  বা রূপ  ব্যবহার হয় সেই form কে voice বা বাচ্য বলে।)
 
There are three kinds of voice.(voice বা বাচ্য তিন রকমের হয়।)
1. Active voice(কর্তৃবাচ্য)
2.Passive voice (কর্মবাচ্য)
3. Quasi- passive Voice(কর্মকর্তৃবাচ্য)
 

 ACTIVE VOICE: when the subject of the sentence is the door actor , the verb is active voice.(কর্তা যখন নিজেই ক্রিয়ার কাজ সম্পন্ন করে, তখন  verb টি  Active voice হয়)

Example: Ram broke the window.
 
উপরের উদাহরণটি তে দেখা যাচ্ছে রাম জানালাটি ভেঙেছে,এখানে বোঝা যাচ্ছে রাম নিজেই কাজটি করেছে তাই  এখানে verb টি Active voice.
 

Passive voice: when the subject of the sentence is acted upon ,then the verb is passive. (কর্তার দ্বারা যখন কোন কাজ সম্পন্ন হয়় তখন verb   টি   passive voice হয়।)

Example:  The window was broken by Ram.
 
এখানে দেখা যাচ্ছে জানালাটি রামের দ্বারা ভাঙ্গা হয়েছে অর্থাৎ রাম নিজে কাজ ঠিক করেনি বোঝাচ্ছে তাই এখানে verb টি passive voice.
 

Rules for changing active voice to passive:

 
Rule-1.   The object of the verb in the active voice become the subject of the the verb in the passive voice.(active voice এর object, passive voice এ subject হয়।
 
Rule-2.    The subject of the verb in the active voice become the object in the passive voice generally preceded by the preposition ‘by’ .(active voice এর subject passive voice এ object হয় এবং তার আগে preposition ‘by’হয়। আরো কিছু preposition আছে সেগুলিও হতে পারে যেমন-with,in at ইত্যাদি।)
 
Rule-3.   The main verb is changed into the past participle and it is preceded by the correct form of the verb to be in passive voice.(Active voice এর মূল verb টি passive voice এ past participle এ পরিবর্তিত হয়। এবং তার পূর্বে ‘to be’ verb এর প্রয়োজনীয় form বসাতে হয়।
 
Rule- 4.   There are some verbs with two objects.in such cases either of the objects (preferably the personal object) can be changed into the the subject and the other is retained as an object .this is called retained object.(active voice এর যদি কোনverb এর দুটি object থাকে, তাহলে একটিobject কে (বিশেষত personal object কে)subject করে অপরটিকে object রূপে রাখতে হয়।passive এ যেটি  object রূপে থেকে যায় তাকেretained object বলে।
 
Example: 
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
The hunter kill the lion.
The lion killed by the hunter
He give me a ball
A ball is given me by him.
Ram reads a book.
A book is read by Ram.
He gave me a book.
             Obj.  Obj.
I was given a book by him.
         R.obj
Or
A book was given me by him.
                   r.obj
 
Objective forms of pronouns
SUBJECT FORM
OBJECT FORM
I
ME
WE
US
YOU
YOU
HE
HIM
SHE
HER
THEY
THEM
 
The following table shows forms of verbs “to be”in different Tense in the Active & Passive voice.
We use here ‘Do’ verb
Tense
Active
Passive
Present Indifinite/simple present
do/does
Am/is/are+done
Present Continuous
Am/is/are+ doing
Am/is/are+being+ done
Present Perfect
Has/have+done
Has/have+been+done
Past Indifinite/Simple Past
Did
Was/were+done
Past Continuous
Was/were+doing
Was/were+being+done
Past perfect
Had+done
Had+been+done
Future Indifinite/Simple Future
Shall/will+do
Shall/will+be+done
Future Perfect
Shall/will+have+done
Shall/will+have+been+done
Can/May/Must (modals)
do
Can/may/must+be+done
 
 
Simple
Continuous
Perfect
Present Tense
Active:     I do it.
I am doing it.
I have done it.
Passive:    It is done by me
It is being done by me.
It has been done by me.
Past Tense
Active:    I did it.
I was doing it.
I had done it.
Passive:   It was done by me.
It was being done by me.
It had been done by me.
Future Tense
Active:     I shall do it.
I shall be doing it
I shall have done it.
Passive:   It will be done by me.
No form
It will have been done by me.
 
PRESENT TENSE
Simple
Active:     Children like sweets
He sells fish in the market.
She loves me.
 
Passive:    Sweets are liked by children
Fish is sold by him in the market.
I am loved by her.
 
Continuous
Active:    I am reading a book.
They are drawing picture.
She is cooking chiken in the kitchen.
Passive:   A book is being read by me.
Picture is being drawn by them.
Chiken is being cooked by her in the kitchen.
Perfect
Active:     I have seen him.
The girls have sent the flowers.
They have brought a camera from Kolkata.
Passive:   He has been seen by me.
The flowers have been sent by the girls.
A camera has been brought by them from Kolkata.
 
PAST  TENSE
Simple
Active:     They bought toys.
She helped me.
He stole my book.
Passive: Toys were bought by them.
I was helped by her.
My book was stolen by him.
Continuous
Active:    I was doing the sum.
I was reading a book.
They were calling the boys.
Passive :   The sum was being done by me.
A book was being read by me.
The boys were being called by them.
Perfect
Active:     They had done the work.
We had won the match.
You had lent the book.
Passive:   The work had been done by them.
The match had been won by us.
The book had been lent by you
 
FUTURE  TENSE
Simple
Active:     He will do the work.
I shall buy a house.
He will not hurt you.
Passive:    The work will be done by him.
Your house will be bought by me.
You will not be hurt by him.
Continuous
Active:
 
 
Passive :     NO FORM
NO FORM
NO FORM
Perfect
Active:     He will have taught this class.
I shall have written the letter.
She will have drawn the picture.
Passive:   This class will have been taught by him .
The letter will have been written by me.
The picture will have been drawn by her.
 
 
Passive of the verbs with modals
Passive form: Modal+ be+ past participle of main verb. (কোন verb-এর সঙ্গে যদি Modal থাকে সে ক্ষেত্রে passive করতে হলে modal এরপর be তারপর verb এর past participle form হবে।)
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
Tapon can do the sum.
The sum can be done by Tapan.
we may help her.
She may be  helped by us.
You must take this medicine.
This medicine must be taken by you.
 

Imperative sentence

 
If the verb in the active voice expresses orders ,request, advice, etc the word ‘Let’ is usually placed at the beginning of the passive voice and the ‘be’ verb is placed before the past participle of the main verb .Another form of the passive is with the verb ‘ should ‘ be or with  ‘Be’/’Get’  only .But if the sentences begin with ‘please’ in the active voice ‘you are requested to’ is used in the passive voice and intransitive verb may also be changed into passive with ‘you are advise to’ , ” you are requested to” etc.such a passive voice of an intransitive verb may be called and indirect passive.
Imperative sentence এ আদেশ, অনুরোধ, উপদেশ, ইত্যাদি বোঝালে বাক্যের প্রথমে Let যোগ করে passive করা হয় এবং মূল verb-এর past participle এর  আগে ‘be’ verb যুক্ত হয়। আবারshould be verb এর সাহায্যে অথবা কেবল ‘be’/get’ verb এর সাহায্যেে আরেকরকম passive  করা যায় কিন্তু  imperative sentence এরactive voice এ যদি please কথাটি থাকে তাহলে passive voice এ ‘you are requested to’ ব্যবহৃত হয়। আবার যদি সাধারণত intransitive verb বা অকর্মক ক্রিয়ার passive voice হয়় না, তবুও কিছু ক্ষেত্রে you are requested to/advised to’ ইত্যাদি যোগ করে তারও passive voice করা যায়।
Example: 
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
Open the door
Let the door be opened
Do it
Let it be done.
Tell him to go
Let him be told to go
Keep your word
Your word should be kept
Love the children
The children should be loved
Please do this work
You are requested to do this work
Please go there
You are requested to go there
Please do not smoke
You are advised not to smoke
 
Note: ‘Let ’may be used both active and passive.
 
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
Let him buy a camera.
Let a camera be bought by him.
Let us forgot the matter.
Let the matter be forgotten by us
Let him go.
He may be allowed to go.
 
 

Interrogative sentence

 
An in interrogative sentence in active voice keeps its interrogative form in its passive voice. If the interrogative sentence begins with the auxiliary verb do the process of changing is convenient bike changing it into assertive first and then into interrogative but if the interrogative sentence begins with other auxiliary verb or a WH word it can be directly change into passive.
Interrogative sentence এর passive voice ও interrogative sentence হয় । এই ধরনের বাক্য যদি do verb দিয়ে শুরু হয়, তাহলে প্রথমে তাকে assertive sentence এ পরিণত করে তারপর তাকে interrogative sentence এ পরিবর্তন করা সুবিধাজনক। তবে যদিauxiliary ‘ Do ‘ না থাকে, অথবা ‘WH’  word দিয়ে শুরু হয়, তাহলে সহজেই সরাসরিpassive এ পরিবর্তন করা যায়।
 
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
Do you know him?
Is he known to you?
Was he taking tea?
Was tea being taken by him?
Have you done the work?
Has the work been done by you?
Where did you see him?
Where was he seen by you?
Who will do the work?
By whom will the work be done?
What did they do?
What was done by them?
Why have you bought this?
Why has this been bought by you?
 

QUASI PASSIVE VOICE (কর্মকর্তৃবাচ্য)

Some verb is active in form but passive in sense. It may be changed from active to passive form in the following way. (Quasi passive বা কর্মকর্তৃবাচ্য গঠন রীতিতে  active কিন্তু অর্থের দিক থেকে passive, এগুলিকে নিম্নলিখিত উপায়ে passive form এ পরিবর্তন করা যায়।)
 
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
Honey tastes sweet.
Honey is sweet when it is tasted.
The rose smells sweet.
The rose is sweet when it is smelt.
The stone feels rough.
The stone is rough when it is felt
The trumpets are sounding.
The trumpets are being sounded.
The drums are beating.
The drums are being beaten.
 
 

Passive voice of complex sentence

 
In changing the voice of complex sentence the voice of both the principal and the subordinate clause should be changed if they have transitive verb and object / complement. The introductory ‘it’ may  be sometimes used in such cases.
(complex sentence এরvoice পরিবর্তনে principal ওsubordinate উভয় প্রকার close এর পরিবর্তন করতে হয় যদি দুটিতেই transitive verb এবংobject বা complement থাকে। Introductory ‘ it’ব্যবহার করতে হয়।
 
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
 I know that he did the work in the morning.
 
It is known to me that The work was done by him in the morning.
 
We hope that we shall finish the work in proper time.
 
It is hoped that the work will be finished in proper time.
 
He cannot depend on what I says.
 
What is said by me cannot be depended on  by him.
 
We must endure what we cannot cure.
 
What cannot be cured must be endured.
 
 
 
 
sometimes one clause with transitive verb is turned into passive and another with intransitive verb remain in active voice.
 
ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
 We know that the moon is round.
It is known to us that the moon is round.
I knew them when they came here.
They were known to me when they came here.
 
Note:    Double passive in a simple sentence or in one clause should be avoided as  
             they are liable to give a wrong meaning.
Active :                     They proposed to arrange a meeting.
Incorrect passive:    A meeting was proposed to be arranged by them.
Correct passive:      It was proposed by them to arranged a meeting.
                                                 Or
                                 It was proposed by them that a meeting should be arranged.
 

Miscellaneous

ACTIVE VOICE
PASSIVE VOICE
He ran a race.
Race was run by him.
He dreamt a dream.
A dream was dreamt by him.
I have fought a good fight.
A good fight has been fought by me.
We talked of them.
They talked of by us.
We must listen to our teachers.
Our teachers must be listened to by us.
There are lots of things to do.
There are lots of things to be done.
There is no time to lose.
There is no time to be lost.
I saw him go to the garden.
He was seen to go to the garden.
Reena made us laugh.
We were made to love by  Reena.
 
 
Someone has stolen my car.
My car has been stolen.
Someone invited me to the party.
I was invited to the party.
One should keep one’s promise.
A promise should be kept.
Circumstances obliged me to go.
I was obliged to go.
We can gain nothing without labour.
Nothing can be gained without labour.
 
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