GRAMMARWORD // SENTENCE // PARTS OF SPEECH // CONJUGATION OF VERB // MORE ABOUT VERB//THE NOUN GENDER // THE NOUN & NUMBER // THE NOUN CASE // MOREABOUT ADJECTIVE//TENSE // SYNTAX- SEBJECT VERB AGREEMENT // VOICE CHANGE // NARRATION //
TRANSFOREMATION OF SENTENCE // NARRATION CHANGE PRACTICE // VOICE CHANGE PRACTICE //
In this chapter we learn about –PHRASE & CLAUSE
WHAT IS PHRASE & CLAUSE
What is Phrase?
Phrase: A combination of words that makes a sense which it is not complete in itself is called a phrase. (যে শব্দসমষ্টি বাক্যের মত পূর্ণ অর্থ প্রকাশ না করে আংশিক অর্থ প্রকাশ করে তাকে phrase বা বাক্যাংশ বলে )
Example: He tried heart and soul.
Profit and loss is common in business.
Phrases are of six kinds.
Noun phrase: a noun phrase is a group of words that act as a noun
Example: The river of the Ganga.
He likes to play cricket.
Adjective phrase :An adjective phrase is a group of words that act as an adjective.
Example: He give me a chain of gold. (Gold chain)
He is without fear. (Fearless)
Adverbial phrase :An adverbial phrase is a group of words that act as an adverb.
Example: He was at the place.(there)
He worked with care. (carefully)
Prepositional phrase: A prepositional phrase does the work of a preposition.
Example: He stood in front of me.
She is at the point of death.
Conjunctional phrase: A conjunctional phrase does the work of a conjunction.
Example: Come as soon as you can.
Not only he but his brother also were present.
Interjunctional phrase : An integer junctional phrase does the work of an interjection.
Example: what a pity!
Now we learn Clause
CLAUSE (খন্ড বাক্য)
Clause: A sentence which is a part of a larger sentence is called a clause. (বৃহত্তর বাক্যের অন্তর্গত অপেক্ষাকৃৃত ক্ষুদ্র বাক্যই খন্ড বাক্য বা clause.)
Example: As he is ill, he cannot come .
This is the boy who did it.
উপরোক্ত উদাহরণে as he is ill, he cannot come, this is the boy, who did it, সবগুলোই clause.
Kind of clause
Clauses are of three kinds
1. Principal clause
2. Subordinate or dependent clause
3. Co-ordinate clause
Principal clause: The clause which stands by itself and on which the subordinate clause depends is called the principal clause.(যে ক্লোজ বাক্যের অপর কোন ক্লজের ওপর নির্ভরশীল নয় তাকে Principal clause বলে)
Example: I know that he is innocent.
Subordinate or dependent clause: A clause that is dependent on another close is called a subordinate or dependent clause.(যে clause বাক্যের অন্য clause এর ওপর নির্ভরশীল তাকে বলে।)
Example: I know the boy who is guilty.
Subordinate clauses are of three kinds
1. Noun clause or nominal clause
2. Adjective or relative clause
3. Adverb or Adverbial cllause
Noun clause or nominal clause: A noun clause does the work of a noun.(যে বাক্যে subordinate clause, noun এর কাজ করে তাকে noun clause বলে।)
Example: The boy who came here is my friend. এখানে who , the boy (noun) কে indicate করছে।
I know that he is honest.
I know where they live.
You must agree to what he proposed.
Tell me what you heard.
This is what you wanted.
I am glad that you recover soon.
The fact that she is here is not known to me.
Noun clauses- that, who, which, why, what, how, etc
Adjective or relative clause: The adjective clause does the work of an adjective.( যে বাক্যে subordinate clause, adjectiveএর কাজ করে তাকে বলে।)
Example: The boy whose father is a doctor came here.
The girl whom you saw last night is my sister.
My friend ,who lives in kolkata,is a Doctor.
Tell me the time when he will come.
These flowers,which gives sweet smell.
I know the reason why you did it.
Adjective clause: Ho, who, whose,home, which, that ,when, where etc.
Adverb or Adverbial cllause :That we’ll close does the work of an adverb.(যে বাক্যে subordinate clause, adverb এর কাজ করে তাকে বলে।)
Example: You may go where you like.
I am so tired that I cannot walk.
Wait till she come.
Go where he is now.
As he is ill he cannot come.
He works hard so that he can pass the examination.
Co-ordinate clause: When two or more principal clauses are joined by co-ordinating conjunction (and ,but, or etc.)they are called co-ordinate clause. যখন দুই বা তার বেশি principal clause, coordinating conjunction দিয়ে যুক্ত হয় তখন তাঁদের বলে।
Example: He is guilty and I know it.
Soma tried hard and succeeded.
I went there and found him ill.
I shall do it now or never.
He is not only knave but also fool.
HOPE YOU LEARNED PHRASE & CLAUSE