Sentence বা বাক্য

Transformation of sentence  

 DEFINITION OF SENTENCE:  A word or a group of words having a clear meaning in a given context is called a sentence কোন প্রসঙ্গে সুস্পষ্ট অর্থ যুক্ত শব্দ বা শব্দ সমষ্টিকে বাক্য বলে।   

Sentences are divided into three classes according to their structure. গঠনের দিক থেকে Sentence  তিন প্রকার। 

1. Simple sentence (সরল বাক্য)

2. Complex sentence (জটিল বাক্য )

3. Compound sentence (যৌগিক বাক্য) 

 Simple sentence(সরল বাক্য): A sentence which has only one finite verb is called simple sentence.

 যে বাক্যে একটি মাত্র finite verb বা সমাপিকা ক্রিয়া থাকে, তাকে simple sentence বা সরল বাক্য বলে। 

Example:  Birds fly.    The baby smiles.   I came home yesterday.      The good boy obeys his parents.  

Complex sentence(জটিল বাক্য ):  A complex sentence is one that contains one principal clause and one or more subordinate clause or clauses.   যে Sentence এ একটি principal clause এবং এক বা একাধিক subordinate clause  থাকে তাকেcomplex sentence বলে।  

Note:  Complex sentence এ  and,but, or ইত্যাদি দ্বারা যুক্ত  subordinate clause  থাকতে পারে।

যেমন -I left the room when my sister came and begin to eat a ripe banana. 

Example:  I know(Pr. Cl)  that he is honest.(                        This is the boy(     who did it.(                       We waited (       until he came (     

 Compound sentence:    A compound sentence is one that contains two or more independent close or coordinator close join together by coordinating conjunction like and, or, but, as well as, either….. or ,neither ……… nor. (যে বাক্যে দুই বা তার বেশি স্বাধীন clause সংযোগমূলক conjunctionএর দ্বারা যুক্তত হয় (যেমন   and, or, but, as well as, either….. or ,neither ……… nor.  তাকেে বলে।) 

 Example: I am weak, but I shall go.               They had left the dusty road on which they had walked so far and entered a footpath in a field.

 I  am weak—principal clause I shall go.—-principal clause                                                        They had left the dusty road—principal clause  which they had walked so far–subordinate clause                                                                        Entered a footpath in a field — principal clause.   


  The transformation of sentence consists in changing a sentence from one form to another without any change off meaning. 

The variation includes.                                             1. Affirmative – negative                                           2. Statement -question                                               3. Statement – exclamation                                      4. Simple – compound                                                  5. Simple  – complex                                    6.complex – simple                                        7.complex – compound                                     8.change of degree                                                  9.change of voice                                              10.change of narration                                     11.change of parts of speech                          12.expending and shorting                                 13.use of Help  omitting But etc.   


He is richHe is not poor
This knife is bluntThis knife is not sharp
Man is mortalMan is not immortal
All must dieNo one can escape death
He is sometimes lazyHe is not always active
Everybody was presentNobody was absent
He is innocentHe is not guilty
I shall always remember himI shall never forget him
He is a great poetHe is no mean a poet.
Everybody will admit itNobody will deny it
It is probable that he will arriveIt is not probable that he will arrive
He is competent for the postHe is not incompetent for the post
I came here for the first timeI did not come here before
He is a man of Marked abilityHe is a man of no mean ability
Only the brave deserves the fairNone but the brave deserves the fair
He always minds his lessonHe never neglects his lesson
This is possibleThis is not impossible
This information is trueThis information is not false
Only a rogue can act like thisNone but a rogue can act like this
Your answer is wrongYour answer is not right
Can I ever forget you?I can never forgot you
Brutus loved CaesarBrutus was not without love for Caesar
I was doubtful whether it is youI was not sure that it was you
Every Rose has a thornThere is no rose without a thorn
More goals will followThis is not the last goal
He is greater than II am not so great as he
I know himIt is not that I do not know him
He answered all questionsHe left no questions unanswered
He loves youHe is not without love for you
Everybody supported usThere was none who did not support us
I am hopefulI am not without hope
He tried all plansHe left no plan untried
Hi saw youHe did not fail to see you
He wanted to fightHe did not want not to fight
He finished everythingWe left nothing unfinished

     Changing the degree  

Raju is stronger than RahulRahul is not so strong as Raju
Suman is the best boy in the classNo other boy in the class is as good as Suman
He is as intelligent as his brotherHis brother is not more intelligent than he
Sameer is taller than VimalVimal is not so tall as Sameer

    Changing a statement into question.  

Their Glory can never fadeKendriya Glory ever fade?
Everybody knows the name of RabindranathWho does not know the name of Rabindranath?
Fire causes smokeDoes not fire causes smoke?

        OMITTING  ‘too’/ using ‘so…that’  

He is too weak to walkHe is so weak that he cannot walk
The news is too bad to be trueThe news is so bad that it cannot be true
It is too old to be usedIt is so cold that it cannot be used
They are too good not to help youThey are so good that they would help you


It is a very lovely picture.What a lovely picture is it!
You are a great foolWhat a fool you are!
The night is very beautifulHow beautiful the night is!
Man is wonderful piece of workWhat a piece of work is man!

   4. SIMPLE –  COMPOUND                                                                                                                              

SIMPLE SENTENCECompound sentence
Coming home, he began to workHe came home and began to work
Going to the garden Ram saw a red roseRam went to the garden and saw a red rose
He left his country to avoid arrestHe wanted to avoid arrest, so he left his country
Confess your guilt to avoid punishmentConfess your guilt otherwise you cannot avoid punishment
Having eaten rice he set out.He ate rice and then he set out.

  5.SIMPLE – COMPLEX                                                                                                                                                     

SIMPLE SENTENCEComplex sentence
I believe her wordI believe what she says
I know his addressI know where he lives
I am glad of your successI am glad that you have succeeded
His honesty is well knownEverybody knows that he is honest
I respect an honest manI respect a man who is honest
He is too weak to workHe is so weak that he cannot walk

   6. COMPLEX –   SIMPLE                                                                                                                                                  

The weather become so hot that we could not go out during the dayWe could not go out during the day due to extremely hot  weather
When the show was over, there was a big rush for the busesThere was a big rush  for buses after the show
A man who is dishonest is not trusted by any bodyA dishonest man is not trusted by anybody
He wants a house which has an attached bathroomHe wants a house with attached bathroom

   7. COMPLEX – COMPOUND                                                                                                                                           

I could not go because I was busyI was busy so ,I could not go
I shall not do unless I am asked forI may not be asked to do, then I shall not do
If you do your duty, I shall be happyDo your duty and I shall be happy
If you spare the road, you will spoil the childSpare the rod and spoil the child
There is no meaning in what you saidYou said something but there is no meaning in it
Unlessyoudo,youwillregretDo or you will regret

   9. CHANGE THE  VOICE                                                                                                                                               

ACTIVE VOICEPassive voice
She writes a letterA letter is written by her
See knew meI was known to her
Do itLet it be done
Please do itYou are requested to do it

   10. CHANGE THE NARRATION                                                                                                                                        

He said to me, “I have done it”He told me that he had done it
I said to Ram, “does he know you”?I asked Ram if he knew to him.
He said to me,”please help me”He requested me to help him
He said, ” let me come in”He requested that he might be allowed to come in.
He said, “what a good news!”He exclaimed that it was a very good news.

   11.CHANGE OF PARTS OF   SPEECH                                                                                                                             

I like you.I have a liking for you
I replied quicklyI gave a quick reply
He is poor, but honestIn spite of his poverty he is honest
I waited eagerlyI waited with eagerness
He helped meHe came to my help.

   12.EXPENDING AND SHORTING                                                                                                                                 

The apples which are rotten must be discardedThe Rotten apples must be discarded
A baby that has been well fed  it will be healthyA well fed baby will be healthy
He boarded a bus which was runningHe boarded a running bus
Remove the chair which is brokenRemove the broken chair

   13.OMISSION OF BUT: USING HELP                                                                                                                              

I cannot but play cricketI cannot help playing cricket
A poet could not but be gayA poet could not help being gay

  USING  ‘No sooner……..than / but’ & “None, but”




You must be happy

As soon as I closed the door somebody knocked
He must yield to necessity
You are the only person fit for the post
You must take the responsibility
I like only sweets


You cannot but be happy

No sooner had I close the door then somebody  knocked
None but the students are allowed to enter the hall
He cannot but yield to necessity
None but you is fit for the post
You cannot but take the responsibility
I like nothing but sweets

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