GRAMMARWORD // SENTENCE // PARTS OF SPEECH // CONJUGATION OF VERB // MORE ABOUT VERB//THE NOUN GENDER // THE NOUN & NUMBER // THE NOUN CASE // MOREABOUT ADJECTIVE//TENSE // SYNTAX- SEBJECT VERB AGREEMENT // VOICE CHANGE // NARRATION //
PHRASE & CLAUSE // TRANSFOREMATION OF SENTENCE // NARRATION CHANGE PRACTICE // VOICE CHANGE PRACTICE //
Article : A,An and The are called articles.
There are two types of articles
Indefinite article: A and An are called indefinite articles because they do not point out any particular person or thing.
Example: a book,an ox
Definite article: The is called The definite article because it points to some particular person or thing
Example:The boy,The girl,The air,
Use of article:
as a basic rule, a common noun in the singular number must have an article before it
সাধারণ নিয়ম অনুযায়ী common noun singular number হলে তার পূর্বে অবশ্যই একটি article বসাতে হয়।
A boy, or the boy
Common noun যদি plural number হয়, তাহলে তার পূর্বে সাধারণত the বসানোর প্রয়োজন হয়না।(plural number এ a বা an তো বস্ তে পারেনা)। অবশ্য যদি নির্দিষ্ট ভাবে বোঝানো হয় তাহলে The বসে)
Boys are fond of sweets.
The boys are playing football.
A a is used before a word beginning with A consonant sound and An is used before a word beginning with A vowel sound.
A boy,a lion,a book,a mango,a bag,a student,a cat
an ass,an ant,an apple,an ice-cream,an arm,an egg
*কোনvowel এর উচ্চারণ’ইউ’বা’ওয়া’হলে A হয়
A useful book
A unique scene
A one- rupee note
A one -eyed deer
A higher secondary school
* আবার, consonant হলেও যদি উচ্চারণ শুরু হয় vowel এর মত তাহলে an বসবে।
কিন্তু H এর উচ্চারণ ‘হ’ হলে A বসে।
A hotel, a humble servant, a historical place.
A or An is used when it is mentioning someone or something for the first time. (Single countable noun)
A man, An old lady
A or An is used to shaw a unit.
A meter, an ounce
A or an is used in the sense of ‘ one like'(to make a proper noun or a common noun)
He thinks he is a Rabindranath.
He seems to be an Indian.
A or An is used before and unknown name or surname
A Ramesh Babu called on you.
A Mr. Mishra came to see you.
Note:An Rahim came here to collect the news. (Ramesh Babu, Mr Mishra, Rahim, A or An implies that the speaker do not knows them)
A or An is used to mean the same.
Birds of a feather flock together
A or An is used to shaw profession, trade ,class etc
He is a businessman.
He is an engineer.
He is a lawyer
A is used before dozen, thousand, million etc
Here is a dozen of bananas.
A or An is used in the same of each or per
He earns one thousand rupees a month.
A or An (also The) is used to shaw a class as a whole.
A(the) cow has horns.
An(the) elephant never forgets.
A or An is used before same words and phrases
I have a headache. I am a hurry.
He had a bad cold.
A or An is used in exclamatory sentence beginning with what.
What a pity! What a pity girl!
What a nice bird it is!
A (andnot The) is used before the superlative’ most’ when it means’ very’
He saw a most wonderful sight.
This is a most interesting story.
A or An which is used before’few,little,lot of,good deal,great many,good many, etc. and sometimes after many.
Here is a lot of books.
A great many soldier entered the town.
I saw a good many boys there.
Many a flower is born to blush unseen.
Many an admirer welcomed him.
There is a few books on the table.
Note: it is also possible to say’few apples’,’little water’but such constructions convey different meaning. They will mean’not many’, ‘not much’
There is a difference between few and a few and between little and a little. A few and a little mean’a a small number’and’a small amount’
USE OF THE
The The definite article’THE’is used
1.To indicate a particular person or thing
Look at the picture.
The book is out of print.
- A noun which has become definite by being mentioned a second time. (কোন অনিদিষ্ট নাউন দ্বিতীয়বার উল্লেখিত হয়ে নির্দিষ্ট হয়ে গেলে)
It is also called familiar the.
There is a tree in the garden. The tree is an oak.
- The names of:
Rivers: The Ganga , The Brahmaputra
Seas: The Black sea, The Arabian sea
Gulfs:The Persian Gulf,The Gulf of Mexico.
Mountain ranges: The Himalayas,The Alps
Groups of Islands: the Andaman, the West Indies, the Philippines
Ships: the Titanic, the Harshavardhan
Newspaper: the Anandabazar Patrika, the Bartaman
Holy books: the Gita, the Bible, the Quran
Noted public places and historical buildings: court, the assembly house, the Taj Mahal, the Victoria memorial hall.
Important events: the French revolution, the sepoy mutiny, the gulf war, the Durga Puja.
Trains, planes and spacecraft: rajdhani Express, the skylab, the Sputnik, the Bombay mail
Desserts: the Sahara, the Gobi
Shops, hotels, restaurants, institutions, clubs, theatres etc.: Calcutta club, the National library, the globe cinema.
- Descriptive geographical or significant names:
The Punjab, the Deccan
- The name of a country that is a union of smaller entities:
The United Kingdom (the U.K), the United Arab Emirates (the UAE)
- The names of a country that is plural in form: the Netherlands, the United States of America(the U.S.A)
Singular common nouns to represents a whole class:
The dog is a faithful animal. The cow eats grass.
- Nouns to point out a person or thing known or already referred to:
Come into the garden. I went to the club.
- Singular noun referring to things of which only one exists, and before directions, e.g. north, south, East, West when they are nouns.
The earth, the sun, the sky, the East, the west
He lives in the south.
He is the best of them.
- a) as adverbs:The more the merrier. The earlier, the the the better
- b) as contrast: he is the clever of the two boys.
- International names with a plural notion to denote a people collectively. Without the, sachi noun indicates the language of the people.
The English (=the English people) are industrious.
English (=the language) is a rich language.
- Adjectives with a plural notion, to indicate the whole class of persons. But we should not combine the both forms.
The rich(=Rich men) are not always happy.
Rich men are not always happy.
The rich man is not always happy.
Both not, the rich men are not always happy.
There is a school for the blind in the City.
- Common nouns as a substitute for the possessive adjective: I struck him on the (his) head.
He stared at me in the( my) face.
- Nouns defined by adjectives or adjective phrase or clause:
The black dog. The immortal Kalidas.the man who came here yesterday are my friends.
13.some adjectives and common nouns in the singular number to express and abstract idea:
Do not leap in the dark. Check the beast (=animal nature) in you.
The mother (=motherly feelings) in her could not bear the sight.
- Adjectives, to denote particular parts of things: he likes the yellow of an egg.
He entered the thick of the forest.
- Adjectives, to denote particular parts of things:
He likes the yellow of an egg.
He entered the thick of the forest.
- Ordinal numbers written in letters; but when written in Roman notation, no article is used.
George the Fifth(but,George V); chapter the Second(but,chapter II)
- Nouns, to indicate a profession:
He joined the church.
- The names of musical instruments:
He plays the violin.
- Ww names of families:
The Browns, the Bosses.
- Proper, materials and abstract nouns to make them common:
Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India. The water of the Ganga.
- The is sometimes used before a noun to give it the force of a superlative:
He is the singer of the day.
- Unit of measurement to mean’every’
Mica does 40 miles to the gallon. Eggs are sold by the dozen. He gets paid by the hour.
- An adjective qualifying a proper noun following it.
The late pandit Nehru, the great Mahatma Gandhi, The immortal surchandra.
OMISSION OF ARTICLE: no article is used:
নিম্নলিখিত ক্ষেত্রে The ব্যবহৃত হয় না।
- Before proper, material, abstract noun, except when they are particularised
Ex-Delhi is the capital of India for hundred years.
Kolkata is the city of joy though there are many suffering.
Sangita easy beautiful girl, but she is not as tall as Ratna.
Gold is a precious metal.
Cotton grows in India.
Health is wealth
Honesty is the best policy.
- Before common nouns in the plural number, except when they are particularised.
Cows eat grass.
- Often before a common or collective noun, preceded by the phrases kind or species or sort of,or when used in its widest sense.
What kind or sort of man is he?
What kind of of flower is it?
He is a a different kind of man.
Man, Bird and beast-all are subject to death.
Malaria is caused by a species of mosquitoes.
- Before man in the sense of mankind, and before father, mother, and baby, when a particular one of them is meant.(সমগ্র মনুষ্য জাতির ঊর্ধ্বেman, এবং বক্তার বাবা, মা, শিশু অর্থে father, mother ও baby এর পূর্বে):
Man is mortal.
Man and women should go side by side in this way.
Baby is crying.
Uncle is coming.
Father is angry.
- Before School, college, church, bed, hospital ,market when these places are call on or used for their primary purpose.
We go to school.(to learn)
Someone goes to church.(to pray)
Note: কিন্তু অন্য উদ্দেশ্যে গেলে বা ব্যবহৃত হলে The বসে।
I want to the school to see the headmaster.
He went to the hospital to perceive his uncle.
- Before home when it means the home of the speaker or the person spoken to.
Stay at home.
But when home is followed by a descriptive phrases or clause, the is necessary.
He returned to the home where he had been so happy.
- Before the names of games and meals.
We like to play cricket.
We have breakfast at usual time.
- Before names of seasons and festivals.
Winter is the best time for picnic.
But, the rainy season.
আবার নির্দিষ্ট করে বোঝালে The বসে.
- Before the names of squares, buildings, parks, streets, Avenue etc.
Rashbehari Avenue, College Street, Minto park.
- Before the words king and queen if they are followed by the name of king or queen and before title when they are used in application to a noun.
King George v, Queen Victoria
Mr Sen, principal of of our college, is a well known figure.
- Before complement of a transitive verb.
They made him president.
He was elected chairman of the board.
- In certain phrases consisting of a transitive verb followed by its object.
To catch fire.
To give ear.
To set sail.
To take offence.
To take root.
- In many idiomatic phrases.
To take root(to be firmly established),
To call call to mind(to remember)
To give ear to (to hear)
To set foot on
At home etc.
REPETITION OF THE ARTICLE
- When two or more nouns joined by and refer to the same thing, the article is used only before the first; but if they refer to different persons or things, article should be repeated before each (and দ্বারা যুক্ত একাধিক noun যদি একই ব্যক্তি বা বস্তুকে বোঝায়, তাহলে শুধু প্রথমটির পূর্বেthe বসে; কিন্তু যদি বিভিন্ন মানুষ বা বস্তুকে বোঝায় তাহলে প্রত্যেকটির পূর্বে the বসে।)
The secretary and the the treasurer have done this. (To separate men)
The secretary and treasurer has done this. (The same man)
Write either’the first and the second boy’or’the first and second boys’to refer to two boys.
- In a comparison, if two nouns refer to the same object, the article is used before the first noun only. But if the nouns referred to different objects, the article is used before each noun.
He is a better poet than a speaker.
He is a better poet than pleader.
Indicate same person.
He is a better poet than a speaker (would make)
He is a better teacher than a leader. (Would make)
Indicate different person.
- When two or more adjectives mention to the same noun, the article is used before the first.
I have a brown and white cat.
- When two or more adjectives mention to different nouns, the article is used before each adjective.
I have a brown and a white cat.