PREPOSITION

preposition
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WHAT IS PREPOSITION?

Preposition পদান্বয়ী অব্যয় বা সম্বন্ধসূচক অব্যয়:

A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show the relation of that noun or pronoun with some other words in a sentence.(যে সকল শব্দ বাক্যে nounবাpronounএর আগে বসে ওই nounবা pronounএর সঙ্গে বাক্যের অন্য সব দেশ সম্বন্ধে বোঝায় তাদের prepositionবলে।)

Example: The mobile is on the table.

The dog is behind you.

The man is under the tree.

Some preposition:  on, in ,to, of ,with ,by, over ,above, from ,then , at,

ইংরেজিতে  বহু preposition আছে। তবে কয়েকটি ইংরেজি preposition এর সঙ্গে বাংলা বিভক্তি ও অনুসর্গের সম্পর্ক লক্ষ্য করা একান্ত প্রয়োজন। কারণ বাংলা বিভক্তি ও অনুসর্গের সঙ্গে ইংরেজি preposition এর সম্পর্ক সম্বন্ধে পরিষ্কার ধারণা থাকা প্রয়োজন। একটি ছকের সাহায্যে পুরো ব্যাপারটা সম্পর্কে স্বচ্ছ ধারণা পেতে পারি।

বিভক্তি/অনুসর্গ

প্রিপজিশন

উদাহরণ

কর্তায় শূন্য বিভক্তি

——————–

Snehashish is a boy. (No preposition used)

কর্মে-   কে রে ,প্রতি

To

He goes to school. (স্কুলের প্রতি বা দিকে)

The pen was given to Gautam.(গৌতম কে)

করনে -দ্বারা ,দিয়া ,কর্তৃক

By (a person/a doer)

With (a thing/an instrument)

The snake was killed by Pushpen.(পুষ্পেন এর দ্বারা)

The cake was written by goat.

He wrote the later with a a black pen.(কলমের দ্বারা)

নিমিত্তে- জন্য

For

He waited for me.(আমার জন্য)

অপাদানে–হইতে ,থেকে , চেয়ে

From (থেকে)

Than (চেয়ে)

The mango fell from the tree.(গাছ থেকে)

You will not take less than 20 rupees.(কুড়ি টাকার চেয়ে কম)

সম্বন্ধে –র ,এর

Of

This is the book of Ram.(রাম এর বই)

অধিকরণে-এ, য়,তে

In

At

He lives in West Bengal.(পশ্চিমবাংলায়)

I live at Gobindapur.(গোবিন্দপুরে)

There is a lot of fish in the river.(নদীতে)

 

Note: by a doer, with an instrument এই সাধারণ নিয়মের ব্যতিক্রম: blasted by an atom bomb, governed by the rules, diet by poison, destroyed by fire , ইত্যাদিতে by আসলে appropriate preposition হিসেবে ব্যবহৃত হয়।

Kinds of preposition

Prepositions may be described in the following classes

  1. Simple prepositions: at, in, by, of, for, on, over, under, up, to, from, with, out etc.
  2. Double prepositions: into, onto, within,without,from,among,,towards etc.
  3. Compound prepositions: these are formed usually by fixing a preposition to a noun, or an adverb.

 

Across(=on+cross)

Beside(=by+side)

Underneath(=under+neath)

Here we can see, before a noun, adjective,or adverb preposition make compound preposition

  1. Phrase preposition or prepositional phrase: Group of words used with the force of a single preposition are called phrase preposition or prepositional phrase.(শব্দগুচ্ছের সঙ্গে preposition যুক্ত হয়ে যখন একটি বিশেষ অর্থ প্রকাশ করে তখন তাকে phrase preposition বা prepositional phrase বলে।)

On account of, instead of, in spite of, by means of, owing to, by dint of, in accordance with, with regard to, on behalf, in lieu of,  with the view to, for the sake of, by virtue of, according to, in case of, in order to, in course of.

He could not come on account of illness.

In spite of hard labour key failed in the examination.

Instead of coming here, he went home.

  1. Participle preposition:   participle preposition are present or past participles which are now used as prepositions-

I know nothing regarding their absence.

The river flows past the town.

  1. Disguised prepositions: in the example like-salt sales one kilo a rupee.

He comes here once a week. A is not the indefinite article but a weekend form of a preposition on.

Note: কয়েকটিword কখনোadverb কখনো preposition হয়। যখন word টি কোন noun বা pronoun কে নিয়ন্ত্রিত করে, তখন তা হয় Preposition; আর যখন তা করেনা, তখন তা   Adverb হয়।

Adverb/adverbial particle

Preposition

Let us move on.

The book is on the table.

Raise your hands up.

Jack and Jill went up the hill.

I could not come before.

I came the day before yesterday.

I have not seen him since.

I have not slept since yesterday

Than -the word is normally a conjunction, but its following a comparative degree. But it is also used as a preposition in same cases, particularly before relative and personal pronouns.

He is better than me in every respect. No one other than him was present there.

Function

Application

Place/position (স্থান/অবস্থান ):

At, about, above, across, against, among, before, behind, below, between, by, down, in, inside, near, of, on, over, under, upon, with, within.

At the window,                   at his office

A chain about his neck.    Above the sky,

a barrier across the road.

Stood against you,            Among the boys,

Stood before him,             Behind the door,

Below the table,                between you and me,

Stand by me,                        sitting by the women,

down the river,  Inside the room, in the room, near the corner of the street, on the table, on your left, on the top of the hill, under the tree, with his friend, within the campus.

Time(সময়)

At, after, before ,by, during ,from ,for, in ,on, since, still, until ,within ,throughout

At 10:00 a.m., at down, at noon, at night, at an early age, after 3 o’clock, after his arrival, before his arrival, before the 15th July, by 4:00 p.m., by sunrise, by night(they travelled by night), during 5 years, during the whole summer/the whole day, from 1st January, for a week/month, in June, in 1995, in the morning/afternoon/evening, on Sunday, since he comes, within 3 months, throughout the year.

Direction/movement (দিক বা গতি):

At, across, down, for, from, into, off, over, out of, round, to, towards, up

Threw stones at the dogs, away from India, ran across the field, went down the hill, start for England, fled from home, jumped into the well, fell off the train, flew over my head, come out of the room, tour around the world, go to school, turn to left, walk to the window, towards north, climb up the hill.

Special use of direction (দিক নির্ণয় বিশেষ প্রয়োগ):

In-denotes inside or within

On-the notes on the border

To-did not outside

Kashmir is in the north of India.

The Himalayas stand on the north of India.

Sri Lanka is to the south of India.

Agency/instrument (ব্যাক্তি, বস্তু বা ঘটনার সহায়তা/মাধ্যম):

At, by, with, through, from

 

 

 

Manner/means(পদ্ধতি)

By, with, through, from

At auction, killed by a man with a gun, by heart, by force, by post ,by poison, destroyed by fire caused, by flood ,by bus, by Tram, by air, by land ,by sea, by an accident

 

By tution(he makes his living by tution),

Paid by credit card, by hand,

With love, with courage,

Through an agent, through a friend, from gratitude.

Reason/purpose (কারণ, উদ্দেশ্য)

For, from, of, through,to,with

For the good of the people, diet for country, took medicine for cold, died from fatigue, suffering from cold, died of cancer, lost his book through negligence , read to learn, shivers with fever.

Possession (সত্ত, অধিকার)

Of,with

   Relationship(সম্বন্ধ)

 

The book of John, the factory of my father, the girl with blue eye, I have no money with me

 

I live with my parents, mix the flour with some milk.

Standard/rate/value/speed (মান, হার, মূল্যবান, গতি)

At,by

Bank charges interest at 7% (rate).

Cloth is sold by the metre. Rice is sold at rupees 8 per kg.(value), the train is running at 60 kilometre per hour (speed).

 

 

 

 

DIFFERENCE OF AT AND IN

AT

IN

AT

IN

We use at for a preposition at a small place (ছোট জায়গার পূর্বেat বসে।)

I live at Chandipur.

We use in in foreign position in a large place. (বড় জায়গার পূর্বে in বসে।)

We live in Kolkata.

We use at office/library/cinema/theatre/building etc. When we are talking about the normal purpose of it.(অফিস লাইব্রেরী সিনেমা থিয়েটার ইত্যাদির ক্ষেত্রে যখন তার স্বাভাবিক উদ্দেশ্যের কথা বলা হয় তখন তার পূর্বে at বসে।)

 

He is at the office. The Browns are at the theatre.

We are at the library.

 

 

We use in office/in the office etc. When it shaws  simply inside the building or position within. (অফিস ইত্যাদি   Building এরমধ্যে Position বোঝাতে বা       Inside the building বোঝাতে  In  বসে। )

 

He is is in the office. The Browns are are in the theatre.

We use at for a point of time. (নির্দিষ্ট সময়ের ক্ষেত্রে at  বসে)

You can meet me  at 10 o’clock./ at 9:00 a.m./at half past five/at breakfast (time)/at down/at noon.

At that time/at at the moment. We also use at with periods of holiday three or four days. At Christmas/at the weekend.

We use in for a period of time. (অনির্দিষ্ট ব্যাপক সময়ের ক্ষেত্রে in বসে।)

You can meet me in the morning/in the afternoon/in the the evening/in the next few days/in the summer holidays./in spring/in July/in1995.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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